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Water Treatment – Chart

How to Treat Your Water

Below is a list of common contaminates and their treatment methods.

Treatment Method Index

1 – Chlorination 2 – Filtration 3 – Distillation 4 – Reverse Osmosis
5 – Ultra Violet Light Systems 6 – Special Ion Exchange Systems 7 – Acid Neutralizer 8 – Water Softener/Conditioner

Water Contaminant

Symptoms/Risks of Contaminated Water

Source

Treatment Method

Arsenic
Increased risk of bladder, lung, skin, kidney, and liver cancer
Natural Deposits and Industrial Pollution
3,4
Hardness (CaCO3)
Aesthetic Problems Cause of Scale on Pipes
Mineral Deposits
8
Iron
Aesthetic Problems Discoloration/Bitter Taste
Naturally Occurring
8
Lead
Health risk for children and pregnant women
Leeched from old plumbing
3,4,7
Manganese
Aesthetic Problems Discoloration/Bitter Taste
Naturally Occurring
8
Mercury
Danger to Young and Developing Children, can cause serious damage to the brain nervous system and kidneys
Natural Deposits and Industrial Pollution
2,4
Nitrate
Threat to Infant Health and Pregnant Women
Fertilizers, Septic Systems, and Animal Waste
3,4,6
pH
Off-balanced pH causes Aesthetic problems and poses potential health risks
Natural Problem
7
Sodium
Alkaline Taste, Potential Health Risk
Proximity to Seawater, de-icing salts, and landfills
2,3,4
Total Coliform/E-coli Bacteria
Diarrhea, cramps, nausea, headaches
Resides in Pipes
1,5

Volatile Organic Chemicals

Water Contaminant

Symptoms/Risks of Contaminated Water

Source

Treatment Method

(VOC) 1,1,1-Trichloroethane
Damaging to the liver, nervous system and circulatory system
Chemical Solvents and Landfill Leaching
2
(VOC) 1,1,2-Trichloroethane
Irritation of gastrointestinal tract; red or hemorrhaged lungs; pale liver
Industrial Pollution and Chemical Solvents
2
(VOC) 1,1-Dichloroethylene
Liver and kidney damage, as well as toxicity to developing fetuses.
Industrial Pollution
2
(VOC) 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene
Causes changes in liver, kidneys and adrenal glands
Use as a dye carrier
2
(VOC) 1,2-Dichloroethane
Central nervous system disorders, and adverse lung, kidney, liver circulatory and gastrointestinal effects.
Industrial Pollution and Chemical Solvents
2
(VOC) 1,2-Dichloropropane
Impairs the functions of the liver, kidneys, adrenal glands, bladder, and the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.
Industrial Pollution
2
(VOC) Acrylamide
Damage to Central and Peripheral Nervous system, weakness and ataxia in legs
Industrial Pollution
2
(VOC) Benzene
Damage to Central Nervous System, Immune system Depression, and Bone marrow Toxicity
Industrial Pollution, Burning of Fossil Fuels
2
(VOC) Carbon tetrachloride
Cause of Lung and Kidney Damage/Cancer
Agricultural Runoff, and Landfill leaching
2
(VOC) Chlorobenzene
Liver Kidney and Central Nervous System Damage
Solvent in Pesticides
2
(VOC) Dichloromethane
Neurological encephalosis and blood cell damage
Released as an aerosol propellant and paint remover.
2
(VOC) Epichlorohydrin
Skin Irritation, Detrimental effects on liver, kidneys and Central Nervous system
Industrial Pollution
2
(VOC) Ethylbenzene
Drowsiness, fatigue, headache and mild eye and respiratory irritation
Chemical Solvents and Landfill Leaching
2
(VOC) o-Dichlorobenzene
Damaging to the nervous system, liver, kidneys and blood cells
Industrial Pollution
2
(VOC) p-Dichlorobenzene
May cause nausea, vomiting, headaches, and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract
Industrial Pollution and Waste dump leaching
2
(VOC) Tetrachloroethylene
Detrimental effects to liver, kidney, and central nervous system.
Industrial Pollution and Chemical Solvents
2
(VOC) Trichloroethylene
Vomiting and abdominal pain
Industrial Pollution
2
(VOC) Vinyl Chloride
Damaging Neurological Effects
Industrial Pollution
2
(VOC) Xylenes (Total)
Adverse changes in Cognitive Abilities, balance and coordination
Emissions from petroleum refining, gasoline and diesel engines
2